Policing Fat People

A couple of decades ago, when message boards were in their heyday and people were saying atrocious things behind anonymous screen names, one man stood out. He was intelligent, but there were many other people who were intelligent. He had strong opinions, but many other people had strong opinions. No, the reason he stood out was because of his extreme narrow-mindedness and his arguments to defend his opinions.

He not only didn’t like fat people, he didn’t think they had the Constitutional right to walk around in public. His argument was that they had Constitutional rights but their Constitutional rights ended at the end of his nose.

He didn’t want to see fat people walking around with big bellies sticking out of their jeans and T-shirts that weren’t tucked securely into their jeans.

He couldn’t stand the new trend of men wearing their jeans with the top part of their rear end showing or shirts that were partially open. He didn’t like to see shirts that rode up and were a few inches higher than their belt. He didn’t like to see any fat person wearing clothing that was tight and emphasized their obesity. In fact, he didn’t like to see fat people at all.

His contention was that fat people belong at home where there is no chance of offending people who are slim and trim and he felt very offended when a fat person was within his sight.

We made fun of his intolerance and I called him the Fashion Police. Instead of taking offense at my remark, he thought I was complimenting him. I wasn’t. I was trying to make him aware that people come in all sizes and shapes and they have the right to wear whatever they want in public. They don’t need policing, nor do they need fashion consultants or diet pills. If they are happy at their weight and they don’t feel the necessity to hide when thin people are around, it isn’t anyone’s business how they dress.

A few years later, 9/11 happened and our lives were changed forever. A couple of years later, I would see an obese person walking down the street with his belly hanging out of his pants and his shirt riding up from his pants and I would think of that man on our message board and wonder if the devastation that hit our country had changed his perspective.

I wondered if he had realized that there were so many more important issues that we faced than whether a fat person has the Constitutional right to go out in public wearing clothing that is too tight and not appealing to his eye. But, maybe I was hoping for the kind of changes that a more tolerant person would have made. He may have learned to keep his thoughts to himself but I doubt if he changed his opinions.

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Old School New Body – The Real Deal?

BEING ACUTELY AWARE of the obesity problem and health risks of aging and obesity, I've been looking into various diet and exercise routines. I've recently discovered the F4x, aka, “Old School New Body” regiment.


Obesity is increasing for a variety of reasons, the most obvious being life style. Our life style is one of sedentary living. The average American sits at a desk in front of a computer during the work-day. That person comes home exhausted from a long commute and sits in a lounge chair and snacks on pre-packaged calorie-rich foods that are absent of nutrients and vitamins. It's no wonder obesity is a burgeoning condition.

One of the purported answers to these negative quality-of-life impacting problems is a program developed during the middle 20th Century. It was recently discovered by fitness expert and fitness magazine editor, Steve Holman. Combined with his expertise he developed the F4x system for those distinguishing individuals between the ages of 35 and 60.


The program is presented in an eBook, but the basics institute four fundamental exercises. These include squats, bench presses, bent-over rows, and dumbbell upright rows. The exercises are recommended at varying intervals, repetitions, and sets. The combined exercises take less than 90 minutes per week. Additionally the program provides advice for proper nutritional intake. The program is segmented into three sections:

1) LEAN : Many users of this protocol simply use the first phase and stay with it. In this phase you can lose ten to a hundred pounds. You perform a lighter variation of the standard exercise routine and follow the F4x LEAN Meal Plan.

2) SHAPE : Here you will increase your weight lifting routine and adjust your diet to add more protein. That way you can maintain the weight you desire and add strong, lean muscle to give you a sculpted appearance.

3) BUILD : Once you've lost weight and toned your body you can progress to the build phase. Most participants do not progress to this phase, however, some users like to bulk up. During this phase there does not seem to be much change, but there is additional weight, reps, sets, and calorie intake.


· This 14 chapter book is well-organized.

· The diet system is similar to the Paleo Diet, natural, quick, and effective.

· There's no need to enroll in a gym program. You can work out at home.


· It's an eBook which, although convenient, is not my favorite format.

· There are some spelling and grammatical errors.


This “Old School New Body” protocol is the most effective all-purpose plan available. I'm especially impressed with the quickness in which you can safely and naturally lose weight and tone your body.

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The Four Major Causes of Obesity

The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide. In the past few decades, this unprecedented increase in obesity has spread across every age, gender and race. In the U.S. alone, the obesity levels have risen to as much as 68% and a similar trend is observed in other countries. In an attempt to understand the different causes of obesity, this article highlights a few major elements which have contributed to the rise in obesity at a global level.

“Fast-Food” Culture

The most significant societal and behavioral shift is observed in our eating habits where the idea of healthy eating has been heavily overshadowed by fast food culture. As highly calorie food has become more affordable and accessible, people are now habitual of fat-laden food items. The growing number of vending machines, fast food restaurants and the excessive use of frozen food items all point towards a mounting problem of disproportionate reliance on energy dense items. Instead of opting for healthier and natural options, people now prefer to spend less time on selecting or preparing their food. The large scale availability of highly palatable food has eventually forced people to increase their total caloric intake per day. In today’s time, grocery stores are packed with highly processed, packaged and non-perishable food items that occupy valuable shelf space. Natural and organic substances, on the other hand are not more costly. The increased marketing of these decidedly accessible, easy-to-cook/prepare and inexpensive food items has had a far more detrimental impact on our health than from what we originally assumed.

Increased Portion Sizes

Increased obesity rates are closely related to increased commercial food portion sizes. Commercially available fast food items are energy-dense foods which contribute to an imbalance in sustaining healthy body weight. The ingestion frequency of these food items along with their portion sizes suggests that people are unable to consume satisfying portions of their meals without consuming excessive energy. In addition, this also results in excessive consumption of sodium, fat and sugar.

Sedentary Lifestyles

With rapid advances in technology and innovation, the resultant decrease in physical activities is also a major lifestyle change. As compared to past decades, people today are less engaged in physical activities. In addition, with the absence of adequate physical education and awareness and less access to such activities, a sedentary lifestyle pattern has developed overtime. Much of recreational time is spend on watching television, playing video games or surfing the internet. While processes have become more sophisticated and efficient, the consequence has been an ultimate decline in calorie expenditure.

Drug Induced Weight Gain And Other Factors

Other than these primary factors responsible for weight gain, there are a few others which are contributing to the obesity epidemic. Use of certain common medications such as those for diabetes, hypertension, contraceptives and hormones, are all attributed to unhealthy weight gain. While research regarding drug induced weight gain is still at a premature stage, the hypothesis supporting the same has been verified by a number of studies and health experts.

Lack of sleep is also a contributing factor as it results in an increased appetite. Other than this, there are certain commercially produced endocrine disruptors which have an impact on the hormonal regulation, thus resulting in obesity. These disruptors are sometimes found in pesticides which are indirectly added to the food chain. For certain countries, such as the US, the increase in food supply has resulted in an increase in the total food intake. Obesity is caused by a multitude of factors which may include social, environmental, psychological and economic elements. There is a need to develop effective interventions so as to control the growth of these driving factors and to encourage health education and obesity awareness amongst individuals.

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An Overview of Liposuction

One of the best and most efficient cosmetic surgery procedures for fat loss is liposuction. This eliminates the fat without risks to your health, and it can certainly be mixed with different types of surgery methods. There are many advantages bought to you by liposuction: a better health standard due to fat loss, a greater looking aspect and a diminished overall appearance of cellulite.

Fat can be removed with the help of diets or using plastic surgery (liposuction), and it can have plenty of great effects on the well-being and health of a person. There are lots of doctors who believe that losing weight is a great way to reduce the risks of getting heart diseases, diabetes or various kinds of cancer.

Even if this procedure can not be used by everyone to eliminate high amounts of fat, it has a great effect on the fat pockets of 10 pound or less which can not be eliminated through the usual exercises and diets. Liposuction can contour and smooth the body in simply unique ways, and it can really make a person feel and look in a positive manner simply because they can wear clothes with smaller sizes. The patients who go through liposuction can also open their horizons towards taking part in different activities which they had previously ignored because they did not like the way they look. The procedures of liposuction offer great methods of removing the fat and their results are always amazing.

The regions that come to one's attention more often are the thighs, the buttocks, the hips, the abdomen or the face. Of course, any person who wants to undergo liposuction should not have great expectations, and should aim towards a great looking skin and a good health state.

In the case of the liposuction procedures, the surgeon will explain his patients the proper procedures, the type of skin, how safe the procedure actually is, and of course, how effective. Both general and local anesthesia work with liposuction. When this has done its effect, the procedure will be managed with the help of a suction device that is placed on a small instrument made out of stainless steel and named cannula. This cannula is placed in the fatty areas and it extracts the fat with a syringe or a suction pump.

After this you get a smooth body. One can use different methods of liposuction in order to get the body of his or her preference. Tumescent liposuction is one technique (a solution is placed into the fatty places in order to liquefy the fat) Another option is the ultrasonic-assisted liposuction, where the fat is liquefied with the help of ultrasonic waves. No matter what options they choose, in just two weeks after the procedure, most people can return to their normal jobs without any problems.

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Obesity and Overweight Health Risks

Obesity involves excess weight gain and an abnormal fat accumulation, usually 20 percent or more over an individual's ideal body weight. Humans take in energy from food and drinks, which is used for the body's natural processes and for physical activity. People gain weight if they take in more energy than they use and lose weight if they take in less energy than they use. Excess energy is stored mostly as body fat, laid down at various sites around the body, regardless of whether the excess energy comes from carbohydrates, fats, or proteins, or from alcoholic drinks.

As obesity has become a major health problem in the United States, bariatrics became a separate medical branch of medicine that deals with the study, treatment of obesity and related disorders.
The prevalence of obesity has dramatically increased in recent decades. Among children, the prevalence of obesity increased too. Obesity and its associated problems, have also a large economic impact on health care system, with the costs.

Overall risk must take into account the potential presence of other risk factors. Risks for certain conditions increase as weight increases. Some diseases or risk factors associated with obesity, place patients at a high absolute risk for consequent mortality. According to the Centers for Disease Control the following are health consequences of obesity:

  • Coronary heart disease
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • Cancers (endometrial, breast, and colon)
  • Hypertension
  • Dyslipidemia
  • Stroke
  • Liver and gallbladder disease
  • Sleep apnea and respiratory problems
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Gynecological problems (abnormal menses, infertility)

Obesity is a chronic disease, that's why patients must understand that successful treatment requires a lifelong effort. The most effective treatment for obesity is behavior and lifestyle modification under the guidance of a physician or weight management specialist. It is difficult for most patients to continue to lose weight or prevent further weight gain.

The following guidelines can help in the management of obesity:

  • An appropriate goal is the prevention of weight gain.
  • A combination of diet modification, increased physical activity, and behavioral therapy can be effective.

Physical activity also reduces the risk of heart disease, at least 30 minutes or more of moderate-intensity physical activity daily.

Most overweight and obese people should adopt long-term nutritional adjustments to reduce caloric intake. Dietary therapy includes moderate caloric reduction for modifying diets to achieve this goal. People must be educated about food composition, labeling, preparation, and portion size.

Most people are lazy and do nothing to lose weight and then suffer health consequences. People buy products, like books that teach them how to lose weight but they do nothing with them.

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Obesity, Sexual Health and Other Health Effects

Obesity has been getting the attention of many health specialists because of the ill-effects it brings. Obesity is defined as an abnormal accumulation of body fat.

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Choosing a Diet – Let There Be Success

Let's face it, choosing a diet is a daunting task with so many options available out there. So instead, try this philosophy instead. Read through the diets with an open mind. Look for the kinds of diets that have desirable tracks that you can stick to. Remember, this is about you and success. If you can not commit to the diet you select, then you have already failed.

Let's look at some dieting myths before you make your decision.

Myth # 1- Some sugars are worse than other sugars. Fact, sugar is sugar; the carbohydrates in these sugars still spike insulin and increase your blood sugar levels resulting in appetite increase.

Myth # 2- Fat is bad. Wrong. Your body requires fat to maintain metabolism and energy. Go for fats from avocados, nuts, and fish and olive oil. Shun red meat, butter and processed foods.

Myth # 3- Carbs make you gain weight. This may not be completely true. But acquaint yourself with the glycemic index and select carbs from the lower end of the index. This way you can easily stick to your selected diet and steadily lose weight.

Myth # 4- Low fat foods help you lose weight. It's calories that help you lose weight. One pound of weight is roughly equivalent to 3,500 calories. So there is room to maneuver on your diet.

Myth # 5. Eating in the evening packs on pounds. It's what you eat like buttered popcorn, snack cakes, potato chips and pizza bite that pack on the pounds. So be aware of what you are consuming.

Next up in selecting a diet that is right for you is going to require some work from you and that work is research. Compare those diets, and review the strategies behind them. Every diet has a list of do's and don'ts, a food list and a strategy to follow. These are the soup to nuts of a sound diet. Check out the physical requirements that go along with the diet. Honestly, exercise is synonymous with diet instead of the phrase “diet and exercise.”

Look into the menu and select three to four diets to zero in on and research deeper. Do they have the snacks you enjoy or could enjoy? Is your comfort food listed? Do they modify recipes of your favorite foods to include them in this diet? Make a list of the reservations you have, because these are where you make your diet selection.

Lastly, acquaint yourself with the issues diets do not address. Issues like the amounts of sugars in carbonated beverages, wheat and its damaging effect to diets. Take a strong look at potatoes and the appetite spikes that can result. Many dieters blame the diet when weight does not come off, yet there are many other hidden factors are culprits as well.

Now narrow down your contenders, adjust your pantries accordingly and set a date to begin. With proper research and self-education you should have every expectation of a successful diet. Here's weight loss to you.

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Those Insidious Diet Busters

Dieting is much more than cutting calories and working out 30 minutes four times a week. Take this perspective, your mind is greater than every computer on earth. Why? It creates, it dreams, it learns at an astounding rate and, as some scientists believe, may contain the essence of your soul. No less is the rest of your body, also such a wonder of nature.

So when choosing a diet, watch out for these dirty rotten low down scoundrels:
Carbonated beverages. High in sugars and no nutritional value, carbonated beverages rob your system of magnesium, calcium and vitamin A, all key ingredients to weight loss. A typical twelve ounce can of cola have 7 teaspoons of sugar in it. Cutting out one can a day will drop your weight 16 pounds a year.

Potatoes. The starches and carbohydrates in potatoes cause insulin spikes which increase hunger. Potatoes are fried, drenched in butter, over salted and are lean in calories without these additions.
Portion control. Restaurants have trained all of us to eat larger portions. Yet when the average dieter reads the labels, a serving of food is just about one half cup. Just sufficient to fit nicely in your cupped palm. A 3 ounce serving of meat are just the size of a pack of playing cards. So most people take in two to three times the calories they think they ate.

Combining improper foods. Did you know that animal protein and high starch foods like potatoes should not be eaten in the same meal? Or eating sweets at the end of a meat and taters meal is bad for you? These combinations leads to digestion difficult, unprocessed food in your guts and toxins building up in your intestines.

Emotional eating. By now most everyone has seen an episode of “The Biggest Loser” on television. Every episode someone deals with emotional eating. Dieting will fail if you constantly graze due to your emotions. Deal with these problems before you ever plan on dieting.

Medications. Check those labels and look up the effects of your drugs online. More intolerable drugs are antidepressants, diuretics, and sleeping pills.

Wheat and your diet. Wheat has addictive qualities and increases appetite. Wheat causes sugar spikes, and increases in blood sugars. When I say wheat, I mean bread (all types) cakes, cupcakes, pasta, cookies and pizza dough. And check those labels on processed or boxed dinners, I bet you will find processed wheat in those too.

Alcohol. After just one drink or a can of beer, your metabolism drops by a whopping 25%. Now how will you burn extra calories to drop weight? Alcohol is made from wheat, corn or other products and has zero nutritional value.

Exercise. We have all been told to exercise 3 times a week for 30 minutes. That's a steady way to add muscle mass and lose body fat right? Wrong Lean muscle weighs more than fat and you might watch the scales go up. Instead try high-intensity interval training (HIIT) an exercise pattern of short intense anaerobic exercise with less-intestinal recovery periods.

Okay! Now go to pick out that diet and start losing those pounds. Just remember that it's not all counting calories anymore.

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How Exploring Your Past Can Help You Lose Weight Now

Very often diets just just do not work. You start with the best intentions hoping to finally achieve your perfect weight. You have failed before but you know this time it will be a success. Yet, something happens and you either can not shift any kilos or, if you are successful, very quickly put the weight back on again.

What happens? It is possible that the reasons of your excessive weight are psychological and that you are unconsciously sabotaging yourself. If that is the case, a simple exploration of your past might help you get rid of these internal barriers. Ask yourself these 10 questions and try to answer them as honestly as you can. The better understanding of the roots of your behavior will help you achieve clarity, set clear goals and succeed at last!

1. How long ago have you decided that your weight was a problem?

Often our relationship with food changes as a reaction to an important life event. Understanding an emotional need behind your hunger will help you deal with the consequences.

2. Could you describe a typical mealtime in your family of origin?

Was the whole family eating together or people taken their meals separately? Did you look forward to a family meal or was it to be endured?

3. Were you made to eat everything that was on your plate, even if you did not like the food? It is possible that you still keep doing that out of habit.

4. Were there any sayings about food that were popular in your family?

5. What was the attitude to fat / thin people in your family of origin?

6. Was it assumed that you look like someone in your family? (parent, uncle etc.) Very often children are given certain “roles” within the family that may be completely unrelated to the child's real character and even looks.

7. Was it a custom in your family to express love and care with food – nice meals, sweets and special treasures?

8. Was anyone in your family struggling with weight issues? How were these problems talked about?

9. In your culture of origin, were large people considered healthier than thin people? In some cultures thinness is associated with illness, so you might be unconsciously putting on weight as a “health protection.”

10. If you tried to lose weight as a young person, was your family helpful and understanding or unsupportive?

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How Martial Arts Can Help With Child Obesity

According to World Health Organization, childhood obesity has increased dramatically since 1990. This presents a serious public health problem, as obese children are more likely to develop cardiovascular diseases or diabetes at a young age. Furthermore, childhood obesity has negative effects on mental health, as it's connected with a number of psychosocial problems (such as depression, lack of confidence and social engagement).

Only a couple of decades ago children lived their youth in a much different way than today's generations. They spend more time outside the house, played more and enjoyed outdoor activities. In the changed circumstances, where modern and appealing electronic devices are easily reachable, kids get drawn to them and, without even noticing, spend hours and hours just sitting and playing with the devices.

Even though modern gadgets stimulate kids mentally, they lead to too much sedentary time. Consequently, that leaves little or no time for physical activities. This fact, combined with an unhealthy diet (studies have shown that kids consume a lot of calorie-rich food and drinks) has produced a whole new generation of overweight children. The good news is that obesity is preventable.

The experts recommend a change in a child's everyday life – increasing bodily activities and creating healthy feeding habits. The key factors that lead to healthy weight are regular motion and exercise, which are natural for children, as they enjoy them rather than see them as a burden. That is why martial arts can be useful when it comes to childhood weight loss. Another advantage is that with a good martial arts master, children learn positive values, such as discipline and respect, together with a comprehension of their body and mind.

Other children in the same group influence their team's physical behavior, so they set a positive peer pressure. One other advantage of martial arts is that, comparing to other sports, the main focus is on the individual and not on the whole team. In other words, if a child has trouble with learning martial arts techniques, it has no impact on others in the team, so he or she will not feel exposed or uncomfortable. Success is measured by the individual qualities and it depends on their effort and dedication, which strengthens the kid even outside the courses.

Martial arts require various types of exercises that include strength and cardiovascular training. This will severely stimulate a child's physical development and, among other benefits (a positive effect on the spine, proper breathing), prevent obesity. Finally, children taking martial arts classes have more self-control and self-respect as they transfer these values ​​to other aspects of life and they handle stress more successfully.

Martial arts programs have multiple positive effects on children: at the same time they help them lose weight, get stronger and become more confident. Last but not least, they can really have a good time being active!

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How To Lower Your Bad Cholesterol

Lowering your cholesterol level need not be something that only medication can do. Not all cholesterol is bad. You have two types in your blood; one is considered good and the other is considered to be bad.

The two types are known as low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL).

It is the LDL levels that you need to be most concerned about.

When your LDL levels are too high, the cholesterol builds up on the walls of your arteries. Your arteries harden over time and reduce the flow of oxygen and blood to your heart. If left unchecked, your arms can become completely blocked and cause a heart attack.

How can you avoid a heart attack and lower your cholesterol levels at the same time?

Follow these few simple rules:

Change Your Diet:

Foods that are high in saturated and trans fats can increase your cholesterol levels. You need to reduce your intake of food that these fats. This includes fried foods and fatty meats. You also need to reduce how much sugar you eat.

Sugar can convert to carbohydrates when not burned off. Carbohydrate then turns to fat and increases your cholesterol levels. Eat a healthy diet that is made up of fresh vegetables, fruit, whole grains and lean meats.

Lose Weight:

Being overweight can increase your cholesterol levels and the risk of suffering from a heart attack. Losing weight can raise your HDL levels and reduce your LDL levels.

Exercise Regularly:

Exercise for at least 30 minutes a day. It will help you lose weight, give you more energy and make you feel better. Brisk walking, weight lifting and yoga are all beneficial for your health.

Change The Way You Cook:

Instead of frying your food, bake, grill or broil it. You can add flavor to your food using a range of herbs, spices and a little salt. You will get the tasty meal you desire, without all the extra calories and fats you do not need.

Healthy Snacks:

Eat snacks that are made from whole grains. They are full of fiber that makes you feel full. One of the biggest battles in losing weight is quelling those hunger pains. When you eat snacks that are high in fiber you will not have this problem.

It is not hard to improve your health. Just follow these few simple tips and you will be lowering your cholesterol level in no time.

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Developing an Awareness on the Importance of Good Diet for Well Being

The United States is faced each year with increasing incidence of health issues, and this is of concern to individuals, the general population, and the entire country as health insurance, and governmental expenses on intervention keep rising. Health care givers are beginning to stress the need for prevention, as most of these health issues are preventable. About 30% of Americans meet the criteria for obesity (Yanovski, & Yanoski, 2011). This number keeps increasing, and the need for intervention is urgent. The purpose of this study is to highlight that many diseases are associated from bad diets, and these diseases can be preventable by making healthy choices of food. Dornelas (2008), states that obesity is associated with many risks which include cardiovascular disease, sleep disorder, reflux disease, stress incontinence, and so many more. Decreasing the amount of calories can also have its negative consequence. Eating disorders like anorexia have been associated with the need to avoid being fat, and this possesses its own health risks. Anorexia nervosa increases the risk of osteoporosis, organ shut down, heart muscles shrinkage, kidneys failure and irreversible brain damage occurrence (Berk, 2010). Too much or too little food consumption has numerous risk factors. The other side effect of these disorders is the psychological impact it has on sufferers.

When the body mass index (BMI) is not in the range of 18.5 to 25 kg / m2, then the person is said to be at risk for diseases. If it is below 18.5 kg / m2, the person is at risk for osteoporosis the thinning of bones which can lead to bone fraction. People with anorexia nervosa fall in this category after losing 25 to 50 percent of their body weight, and lack of food to the body can deprive it of nutrients that it needs to sustain itself. Anorexic individuals stop menstruating because the body needs about 15 percent of body fat in order to menstruate. Malnutrition causes brittle nails, pale skin, fine dark hair in the body and extreme sensitivity to cold temperature (Berk, 2010). If this continues without treatment, the organs start shutting down and can even lead to death. When BMI is more than 25 kg / m2, then the person is said to be overweight, and anything more than 30 kg / m2 is considered obesity. The more obese a person is, the greater the risk association with diseases such as type II diabetes mellitus, cardiologic diseases and so on.

The body needs 6 to 11 servings of carbohydrates, 3 to 5 servings of vegetables, 2 to 4 servings of fruits, proteins, and oil, fats and sugars are needed sparingly daily. The average calorie that the body needs is 2000 Cal. This can be adjusted based on height, gender, and activity. Someone with a sedentary lifestyle needs less calorie while, an athletic or active lifestyle needs more. It is important for the general population to know the caloric contents of the food they consume. Carbohydrate and protein contain 4 Cal / gram respectively, while fats / oils contain 9 Cal / gram. The population consumes more fats / oils than needed daily, and one can see that fat is more than double of carbohydrates and protein combined. When the body has insufficient protein, it results in the disease called kwashiorkor, and lack of total caloric intake results in the disease called marasmus. While excess caloric intake causes high cholesterol, type II diabetes, arteriosclerosis, obesity and much more.

Many schools have speculated the cause of obesity, as some researchers believe it has genetic origin, as well as environmental. The genetic origin deals with lack of fat receptors in the body, which slows the metabolism of fat. The environmental aspect deals with the type of diet individuals consume, and lack of physical activities. The environmental way to deal with this genetic defect is to further decrease the caloric intake, increase physical activities, education, and social support. A study done by Rooney, Mathiason and Schauberger (2011), examined the predictors of obesity in a birth cohort. A cohort of about 795 mothers and 802 children were followed during pregnancy for about 15 years. Characteristics of mothers and offspring were examined to find any predictor of obesity. They found that, gestational birth gain, weight gained during infancy, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and most especially maternal obesity is the strongest predicator of child's obesity at all times. The result of this study might be due to genetic or due to the fact that the child has been exposed to the same kind of diet as the mother, and this eating pattern continues with the child.

Some theorists also argued that the cause of obesity is the lack of will power. Boutelle, et al. (2011), examined two treatments specified to reduce eating in the absence of hunger in overweight and obese children. Participants were overweight or obese, selected from schools, day care centers, and parents reported child's eating in the absence of hunger in order to participate. The study was divided into two groups. The first group was the appetite awareness training group, parents were asked to use monitoring to increase sensitivity to hunger and satiety and the coping skills for the children to manage the urge to eat when not hungry. The second group was the cue exposure treatment food group. This is described as cravings, which is eating when not physically hungry. In this treatment, children learned strategies to recognize cravings and suppress it until urges diminished. The results shown that both treatments significantly reduced the urges of eating when not hungry, and as a result, weight decreased. This means that not every food consumed is due to hunger.

Parenting style can affect the way children eat. Hoerr, et al. (2009) study with 715 children and their parents (43% African American, 29% Hispanic and 28% White) with food intake in several groups were calculated from three days of diet recall from 3 pm until bedtime. Hoerr et al. found that children from authoritarian families take more fruits and vegetables than children from indulgent or uninvolved parents. This shows the effect parenting can have on children. When parents' influence is lacking, the children do not have a guide to doing the right things. Children need guidance to make the right choice in life; including choosing the right diet. This is why early education is important to begin from home.

Dornelas (2008) found that as obesity increased, so did referrals to weight loss surgery; because the need to reduce weight is urgent due to high risks associated with it such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancers, arteriosclerosis. Psychotherapists need to be trained in order to handle the undercoming cause of obesity, which is entangled with other psychological problems. Obesity is a disease which needs to be treated, both physically and psychologically. Dong, Sanchez, and Price (2004), examined the relationship between obesity and depression in nuclear families among siblings and parents with a total number of 1730 European Americans, and 373 African Americans. Many variables were measured, and they found that depression was greater with an increase in body mass index (BMI), across gender and racial groups, even after controlling for the presence of chronic diseases. The offspring of depressed parents were also more likely to be depressed.

Furthermore, to predict type II diabetes in individuals at risk, the BMI, or the size of the waist can help do so. When fat accumulates centrally in the abdomen, the circulating fats can cause insulin resistance, as fat is less likely to cause insulin resistance when it accumulates in other parts of the body. Tsenkova, Carr, Schoeller, and Reff (2011) in perceived weight discrimination amplified the link between central adiposity and non-diabetic glycemic control and the result showed that hip-to-waist-ratio (central adipose deposition) has been significantly linked to significant increase in HbA1c (monitors long time diabetic control). It also shows that weight discrimination increases the psychosocial stressor and this increases the HbA1c as a result of stress. Decreasing weight can help eliminate type II diabetes.

The psychological impacts that poor diet has on individuals who suffer, are numerous. People with anorexia nervosa have body image distortion, they are always anxious, they have poor impulse control, are emotionally inhibited, and they avoid close relationship outside the family (Berk, 2010). Anorexic individuals do not see themselves as thin they see a different image of themselves in the mirror, as this shows that the disorder is not just physical, but psychological as well. Even though thin is being accredited, anorexic individuals are looked down on as being so thin that they are unattractive. They parents of anorexic adolescents may be very controlling and emotionally distanced from their children. In pursuit of absolute thinness and perfection, these individuals are afraid of losing control, so they are always nervous and about six percent end up committing suicide.

To prevent the problem of anorexia nervosa, parents need to emphasize the need for healthy diet, and not criticize the physical appearance of their children. They need to create a routine for family meals; physical activities, as emotional and social support for their young ones are very important in healthy growing of a child. Most anorexic individuals were formerly overweight or obese before the thought solution which landed them in this category. It is not how the media portraits thinness that matters, but how the parents make the children feel. If children have confidence and high self esteem and approval from the parents, it would be hard for peers or media to change that in the children. Godart, et al. (2006) study in a multidimensional treatment for anorexia nervosa, including patient and parent counseling, but not the entire family. The results showed that patients who got therapy with their parents had better exit than those who got individual therapy. This suggests how parents can help their children feel good about themselves.

People who are obese face many challenges like those with eating disorders, as they are socially discriminated against when compared to normal weight counterparts. They are viewed to be less attractive, and this makes it more difficult to find mates. Employers find it harder to hire obese employees because of fear of high cost of medical expenses that results from obesity. With these social isolations, obese individuals are more than likely to be depressed. Even though the study by Goodman and Must (2011) showed that severely obese youths in their sample did not have high level of depressive symptoms, other studies support an increase in depressed symptoms in obese individuals. In relationship of obesity to depression, Dong et al. (2004), found that obesity was associated with depression, even after controlling for chronic physical diseases. Dornelas, (2008) reported low self-esteem, poor body image, social discrimination and mistreatment in the job, experienced by individuals who are heavier than normal. It is this social mistreatment that usually cause depression; those with social support that feel good about themselves, might not be feeling depressed.

Women were more likely to be viewed negatively when overweight than men, and this makes it harder for women to adjust socially. It is this social stigma that causes women to have harder time coping with depression than their male counterparts. The psychological effect of obesity is worse among women, according to Ferguson, Kornblet and Muldoon (2009). In the study, women were found to have more negative effects than men. They had a lower quality of life, a dissatisfying sex life and more public distress, even though these women had lower BMI than the men did. This is like a cultural norm that women have to look more beautiful and attractive than men do, so any woman that does not conform to this norm is being frowned upon.

Children who are obese are often bullied at schools. Other children make fun of the obese children, because they think that these children lack the power to control eating. So it is not that obese individuals are depressed because of their obesity, but because of how other people make them feel. Flodmark's (2005) study in the happy obese child found that obese children in a community with social support are not depressed and do not find their obesity to have a psychological impact in them, but a clinical sample of obese children show low self esteem, and poor quality of life. With this, it can be suggested that it is not obesity that causes depression, rather attitude towards obesity is mostly what leads to depression. To avoid the psychology impact of obesity, the society can socially support the sufferers by not discriminating against them, so that they worry about the medical impact of obesity and not the social aspect.

Arguments can be made about the causes of eating disorder. In the case of anorexia nervosa, it is caused by a compulsive fear of getting fat, especially in adolescents and young adults. This problem is mostly seen in the western world, where admiration for thinness is the norm. This disorder has a psychological basis because, sufferers have a distorted body image, where they see themselves as fat even after having been severely malnourished and underweight. At the same time, they vigorously exercise to enhance further weight loss. According to Berk (2010), about six percent of anorexic individuals die of suicide or physical complications. This happens in families were physical appearance and social acceptance are emphasized, where perfect achievement and thinness are well regarded. These patients strive hard to achieve the ideal image, but may never be satisfied with their body image no matter how hard they try.

Obesity is mostly common in people with a sedentary lifestyle that acquire more calories than needed. It is more in industrialized nations where technology has made life easier with little or no man power to do work. The mode of transportation has also helped to facilitate obesity, as people no longer walk from places to places or ride the bicycles, instead they drive from place to place, use the trains, get in the city buses, as these reduce physical activities that aid in energy expenditure. Ersoy, Imamoglu, Tuncel, Erturk, and Ercan (2005) study in three different district found that people from low socioeconomic status, less education, less active professions and men who were unemployed had a higher BMI. This is so because these people had a more sedentary life style than those in high socioeconomic status or those that had jobs.

Another group where obesity trends exist is with the socially economic disadvantaged. In this group, providing the basic necessities of life is difficult, so little money is spent on healthy foods. The foods that are cheap are the ones that are unhealthy while the healthy choices are expensive to afford. Juby and Meyer (2011) state that policies and recommendations make it hard for poor families to buy nutritious food like fruits and vegetables, at the same time, cheaper foods tend to have more calories and provide fewer nutrients. They call this obesity related malnutrition. In a study done by Ludwig et al. (2011), the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) randomly assigned vouchers to 4498 women with children from 1994 to 1998, 1788 were told that the voucher is only redeemable if they find housing in low income neighborhood with cancellation offered to them, and 1312 were given no specification and cancellationing also offered to them. One thousand three hundred and ninety eight total individuals were selected as the control group that was offered none of the opportunities. A survey follow up from 2008 to 2010, shown that the prevalence of BMI more than 35 and type II diabetes were more in poverty neighborhood than the other groups.

Ersoy et al. (2005) acknowledged that people from high socioeconomic status and education ate more fruits and vegetables, and used more vegetables, olive or corn oils in their cooking. This shows the need for education and the effect of understanding of the benefit of good diet, and also having the money to afford it. The study also highlighted that female education was more effective in controlling obesity for future generations. Another study by Colineau and Paris (2011) supports the influence of family involvement as a collective goal to eating healthy, and feedback increments significantly with mother's involvement. This might be true because of the domestic role that a female plays at home. Women are mostly in charge of grocery shopping, cooking and nurturing. If they make this positive changes, and teach their children early enough how to eat right, then less problem with obesity can manifest during their adulthood.

Treatments – it is necessary for health care providers to emphasize the importance of healthy diet to parents, and for parents to start cultivating good eating habits at home. Parents can help inculcate discipline in their children to make better choices of food they eat. A well balanced diet with low fat and sugar according to the food pyramid needs to be followed. Although, weight loss advocates argue that food rich in protein helps suppress appetite, and care needs to be taken in following such recommendations, as the body needs a balance diet from all food categories to function well. What need to be emphasized are reduced portions of meals and healthy choices, rather than excluding vital nutrients that the body needs to function well. Training individuals is needed to keep a record of what they eat is another way to help them monitor the quantity and quality of the foods they eat. Thirty to 35 percent of obese people believe they eat less than they do (Blaine & Rodman, 2007). People do not need to diet and feel deprived of what they like, but they should be encouraged to choose food from varieties of what they like but size the portion and calories of what they eat.

The need for exercise should be stressed for everyone, not just the obese individuals. Exercise helps the body to transport sugar into all parts of the body, and maintain healthy weight, and it helps prevent insulin resistant in the body. Van Baak (2010) recommends physical activity rather than just exercise; it is body movement that results in energy expenditure over the resting energy. Physical activity is also essential in reducing the effect of genetic tendency of being overweight. Physical activity as Van Baak (2010) states is what is needed not just exercise, as this can be done by doing chores at home, walking instead of driving, instead of sitting down and watching television, one can simply have leisure activities. Exercise offers physical and psychological benefits that restrict overeating (Berk, 2010).

Government tries to help fight obesity by creating policies based on evidence of what has worked to lower the probability of obesity. Unfortunately, most of these policies have not been proved to be of any significance. Recours, Hanula, Travert, Sabiston and Griffet (2011) found that adolescents' motivation to physical activities decreed significantly from 2001 to 2008, despite the Government's seven year health strategy for nutrition. One can conclude that it is not what the government does that helps eliminate obesity, but it is the parental education and involvement at home that really helps children more. If children are not being told the benefit of staying healthy, or are not supported or encouraged by their parents to participate in physical activities, then the zeal to participate will likely not be there.

Care givers have to teach cognitive skills and behavioral strategies to individuals to cope with temptation situations. Long time adaptations have to be made because statistics show that most people regain weight after one year of losing it and anorexic people, never fully recover from it. Boutelle et al. (2011) used behavioral strategies to deal with children who were eating when not hungry. This footstep should be followed to achieve this success. There is need to increase length of therapy for these individuals, to enable them develop new habits and skills to deal with their situations. The need to support these people is very important, this is done by encouraging them and not being critical of them, as this will make them feel good about themselves and help them maintain normal weight.

It is necessary to educate people with eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and obese people about the implications of these diseases. Health care givers are trying to create this awareness to general public, and fortunately organizations like the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and North American Association for the Study of Obesity (NAASA) are using increased educational efforts to fight this epidemic disease and create awareness of the implications of these diseases. Schools should also incorporate nutritional studies in their curriculum, so that children can take the lessons home and further educate their parents who have no prior knowledge of good nutrition.

So many studies have been done on eating disorders and obesity, and these studies have focused on different ethnicities, cultures and the alarming results are still similar to each other. There are indications that genetics enhance the probabilities of getting anorexia nervosa or obesity, but this can not manifest unless the environmental factors permit. The Rooney et al. (2011) study examined the predictors of obesity in a birth cohort, and found that maternal obesity was the strongest predictor of child's obesity. The limits in this study is that Rooney did not analyze children outside their biological homes, to differentiate if the obesity was caused by the gene they inherited from their mothers, or perhaps obesity was due to the same diet from which the mother ate as well. Even though some studies found that adopted children were most likely to maintain weight similar to biological families, one can explore this further in the Fernandez et al. (2008) study. Does nature over cover nurture?

Flodmark's (2005) study about the happy obese child was a very interesting one, as this study showed that obesity is not the cause of depression, but the social treatment of those that are obese is usually what causes the depression. If the society beats the obese individuals the same ways normal weight individuals are being treated, the case of having depressed individuals would be the same in obedience and thinness. Depression may cause further increase in size, since they obese individuals avoid societal bias against them, they may avoid outdoor activities which might help them lose some weight. This is something one has to learn to socially and emotionally support these individuals.

Finally, this literature review examined the problems faced when there is improper nutrition, its financial burden and the effect it has in our health. It explores the causes of anorexia nervosa and obesity, and previous studies on this topic, which showed that obesity has a genetic base, but environment gives way for its manifestation. The Boutelle et al. (2011) study showed that behavioral strategies can be used to combat eating when not hungry. There are many ways one can fight obesity and related diseases, through physical activities, nutritious healthy meals, social support, and having positive body image.

In conclusion, evidence shows that families that work together to maintain a healthy diet succeed more than individuals that work on their own. There is a need for physical and mental support for those trying to gain or lose weight. The support needs to initially start from home. The studies reviewed above highlighted the positive impacts that families have on individuals who struggle with weight. Most times the problems begin from home, and the solutions need to start from home as well. Families need to have dinners together, discuss the importance of healthy meals and incorporate physical activities into their agenda.

Furthermore, there is need for social support for these individuals. Supporting them socially can help them psychologically to avoid depression, anxiety and low self esteem. Provisions can be made to accommodate them with stylish dresses in stores; this approach may help them feel good about themselves. It is social support from families and friends that help these individuals maintain healthy weight after intervention ends.


Berk, LE (2010). Development through the lifespan (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon

Blaine, B., & Rodman, J. (2007). Responses to weight loss treatment among obese individuals with and without BED: A matched-study meta-analysis. Eating and Weight Disorders, 12, 54-60.

Colineau, N., & Paris, C. (20011). Motivating reflection about health within the family: The use of goal setting and tailor feedback. User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction, 21 (4-5), 341-376.

Dong, CC, Sanchez, LE & Price, RA (2004). Relationship of Obesity to Depression: A Family-based study. International Journal of Obesity, 28 (6), 790-795.

Dornelas, EA (2008). Morbid obesity. In EA Dornelas (Ed.), Psychotherapy with cardiac patients: Behavioral cardiology in practice (pp. 173-185). Washington, DC US: American Psychological Association.

Ersoy, C., Imamoglu, S., Tuncel, E., Erturk, E., & Ercan,? (2005). Comparison of the factors that influence obesity prevalence in three district municipalities of the same city with different socioeconomic status: A survey analysis in an urban Turkish population. Preventive Medicine: An International Journal Devoted To Practice and Theory, 40 (2), 181-188.

Ferguson, C., Kornblet, S., & Muldoon, A. (2009). Not all are created equal: Differences in obesity attitudes between men and women. Women's Health Issues, 19 (5), 289-291

Fernandez, JR, Casazza, K., Divers, J., & Lopez Alarcon, M. (2008). Disruptions in energybalance: Does nature over cover nurture? Physiology & Behavior, 94 (1), 105-112.

Flodmark, CE (2005). The happy obese child. International Journal of Obesity, 29 (Suppl2), S31-S33

Godart, NN, Perdereau, FF, Rein, ZZ, Curt, FF, Kaganski, II, Lucet, RR, & … Jeammet, PP (2006). Resolving a disparity in a clinical team: Overcoming conflicting views about the role of family therapy in an outpatient treatment program for anorexia nervosa. Eating and Weight Disorders, 11 (4), 185-194.

Goodman, E., & Must, A. (2011). Depressive symptoms in severely obese compared with normal weight adolescents: Results from a community-based longitudinal study. Journal of Adolescent Health, 49 (1), 64-69

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Juby, C., & Meyer, E. (2011). Child nutrition policies and recommendations. Journal of Social Work, 11 (4), 375-386.

Ludwig, J., Sanbonmatsu, L., Gennetian, L., Adam, E., Duncan, GJ, Katz, LF, & … McDade, TW (2011). Neighborhoods, obesity, and diabetes: A randomized social experiment. The New England Journal of Medicine, 365 (16), 1509-1519.

Recours, R., Hanula, G., Travert, M., Sabiston, C., & Griffet, J. (2011). Government interventions and youth physical activity in France. Child: Care, Health and Development, 37 (3), 309-312.

Rooney, BL, Mathiason, MA, & Schauberger, CW (2011). Predictors of obesity in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood in a birth cohort. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 15 (8), 1166-1175.

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5 Disadvantages of Being Overweight!

There is a big difference between being healthy and being overweight, isn’t there? But, sadly most people tend to ignore this difference when it comes to their daily eating habits. The result is that before you know it, you have tipped the weighing scale on the wrong side. Also, the worst part is that you may gain weight easily but losing it is quite a daunting task. As soon as the bulk adds on to the body, it surely affects your cosmetic appearance, doesn’t it? However, being overweight goes beyond being just a cosmetic problem. You also end up being exposed to a variety of health risks because of the extra weight.

Here is a brief preview of the 5 major disadvantages of being overweight

Coronary problems: The heart is designed to pump blood in the entire body. But, as you gain weight, the excessive fat ends up being deposited in your arteries. Over a period of time, these deposits tend to harden and therefore interrupt the regular supply of blood in the arteries. As a result of this, your heart has to work overtime making it prone to several coronary disorders.

Diabetes: Being obese also affects the ability of the body to use the insulin properly. In simple terms, overweight people are more likely to have higher glucose levels in the body. This makes them diabetics. With progress of time, diabetes also affects the other organs of the body worsening the condition of the patient.

Infertility: For women, the tendency to become obese also affects their fertility. After all, excessive body weight tends to disturb the hormonal balance as well as the menstrual cycle. There have been several researches as well that have proved this fact.

High Blood pressure: If you think that adding a few pounds every year is not that bad for the body, you are grossly mistaken. Over the years, as these pounds add up they make you obese. Due to this obesity, your heart has to pump blood faster. Given this situation, you are most likely to fall prey to the high blood pressure disease.

Sleep Apnea: Obese people often find it difficult to breathe normally during their sleep. This is a typical condition arising from the excessive accumulation of fat around the neck that narrows the airway. In extreme cases, this inability to breathe can also choke the patient leading to his or her death.

The simplest solution to avoid these problems is to eat wisely, live healthy and exercise regularly!

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Risks of Lap Band Surgery

When you are considering lap band for weight loss, you must realize that although it is a widely prescribed solution to obesity, it is still a surgical procedure and therefore has risks.

I'm not saying this to scare you away, but to make you aware. As the major risks of this procedure go, they are significantly less than other weight loss surgeries.

Common Risks

Some of the common risks have to do with the alteration of the stomach pouch isolated above the band. In some cases this pouch can enlarge due to stretching of the stomach or slippage of the lap band.

Other possible risks and complications include:

  • Band leakage
  • Reflux or vomiting
  • Erosion of band into stomach
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Enlargement of stomach pouch or band slippage
  • Dehydration
  • No weight loss
  • Blockage of stomach outlet
  • Gas bloat
  • Nausea
  • Constipation
  • Ulceration
  • Weight regain
  • Gastritis
  • In extremely rare cases, death

Before getting too worried about some of these risks, we need to temper them with some of the risks you already run because you are overweight and that comes with it's own set of complications.

More people than ever before are obese and the trend shows no sign of letting up. CDC (Centers for Disease Control) statistics state that obesity has increased 60% in the last decade.

Risks of NOT losing weight

If you weigh twice or 100 lbs more than your ideal weight or have a body mass index of 40 or more you are morbidly obese and run the following risks:

  • Diabetes
  • Stroke
  • Hypertension aka high blood pressure
  • Joint Problems from carrying extra weight
  • Sleep Apnea from extra tissue in the throat region.
  • Cancer
  • Coronary Artery Disease
  • Respiratory Problems

Obviously, these are real risks you face today. Even though this procedure has risks, not doing anything about your weight also has risk. You should talk to your doctor to see if lap band or some other weight loss surgery is worth it for you.

Diabetes is one of the worst diseases one can suffer from and is very common among the obese. If you are at a high BMI, you are a perfect target for this terrible disease.

One of the major advantages of lap band is that it can be removed or replaced if complications do come up. Other weight loss surgeries are non reversible. You can not go back and have them add back what was cut out during a gastric bypass or gastric sleeve procedure.

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The 3 Crucial Steps to Becoming an Intuitive and Mindful Eater

Diets are all about restriction. Someone hands you a meal or a diet book that lays out a specific plan of what you can eat, when you can eat it, how much you should eat and how long you should follow this set of “rules” in order to reach your goal . The problem with this is once the diet is “over”, the weight has a tendency to come back, because there is no longer a road map to follow.

You may have read or hear the terms “intuitive eating” and “mindful eating”. These terms are often used interchangeably and while they are related, they are also different. Both however are key to finally getting off the diet roller coaster.

Intuitive eating is eating based on your physiological hunger and satiety signals and not based on situations and emotions. Mindful eating is about paying attention to the act of eating, without judgment. It is an important step on your journey to becoming an intuitive eater. When you eat mindfully, you are more aware of your eating habits, the sensations you experience when you eat, the taste, texture, and aroma of the food, and the thoughts and emotions that you have about food. It is more about how you eat than what you eat.

Many of the issues that dieters face come from a lack of tuning into certain feelings and cues while eating. Then they punish themselves for overeating and move on to another diet with a new set of restrictions.

There are 3 crucial steps that you need to take in order to become an intuitive eater. First, you need to develop a non-diet mindset; second, you need caring support and third, you need to honor your body. No form of dieting is going to work for you to lose the weight and keep it off. These three steps are critical in order to be freed of dieting forever.

Step one: Shifting into a non-diet mindset is all about rejecting the diet mentality. You likely have a list of “good” and “bad”, or “legal” or “Illegal” foods that you can or can not eat. This sets you up for feelings of deprivation and occasional overeating on those foods you have driven yourself of. Throwing out those lists and the diets you have in your home will set your commitment to a diet-free way of life.

Step two: Building a strong support network is important to help cheer you along. Equally important, if not more important, is the aspect of self-care. You must take care of your basic needs if you expect to be able to tune into your inner signs. Take time for yourself, get enough sleep, and schedule play time into your busy day.

Step three: Honoring your body by tuning into your thoughts, feelings and signals. This means really listen for your hunger signals and your fullness signals and let those signals guide your eating at each and every meal.

The process of learning to become an intuitive and mindful eater is a journey. It is about taking steps towards becoming someone you love inside and out. It will end your search for the next diet miracle because it is through intuitive and mindful eating that you will find your destination: a body you love and that you can maintain forever without dieting.

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